On the basis of temperature and height from the earth’s surface, there are 5 layers of the atmosphere.
The 5 layers of atmosphere make the whole atmosphere.
The 5 layers of the atmosphere are as follows:
The troposphere is the thinnest and lowermost layer of the atmosphere.
Its thickness is about 16 km and it varies at the poles and at the equator of the earth.
It is only about 8-10 km thick above the poles and about 15-16 km thick above the equator.
At the equator, warm air is present that makes the layer thick and expands it.
About all the water of the atmosphere is present in the troposphere.
We live in this (Troposphere) layer and it is extremely influenced by human activities.
The air nearest to the earth’s surface is the warmest because the earth reflects heat into this layer.
The temperature in the layer decreases with the height at the rate of about 6.5 degrees centigrade per kilometre and pressure is halved at each 5.6 km height.
The temperature at its boundary varies from -80 degree centigrade to -55 degree centigrade.
The temperature of -80 degree centigrade is above the equator.
The average temperature of this layer is about 22-degree centigrade.
The upper boundary of the troposphere is the tropopause.
The stratosphere is the layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere.
It extends from 16 km to 50 km above the earth’s surface. So, it’s thickness is about 34 km.
This region is also called Ozonosphere because it’s a major component is Ozone.
Other components of the stratosphere are N2, O2 and nascent oxygen.
Ozone is a special type of oxygen-containing three oxygen atoms.
The ozone layer protects us from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays of the sun.
The absorption of solar radiation heats the upper layer of the stratosphere and the temperature varies from -80 degree centigrade to -2 degree centigrade.
The upper boundary of the stratosphere is stratopause, which has the temperature of -2 degree centigrade.
Stratosphere may have a cloud called Cirrus at the lower level.
This (Stratosphere) layer is clear and cloudless, that’s why jet planes often fly in this layer.
Mesosphere is the layer of the atmosphere above the stratosphere.
It extends from 50 km to 80 km above the earth. So, it’s thickness is 30 km.
It consists of N, O, and O2.
The temperature of this layer varies from -2 degree centigrade to -110 degree centigrade.
Its upper surface has the temperature of -110 degree centigrade.
It has to vary less ozone to absorb the ultraviolet rays, therefore it is the coldest layer of the atmosphere.
Mesosphere has strong wind which blows eastward in the winter and westward in the summer.
The upper boundary of the mesosphere is mesopause.
The thermosphere is the layer of the atmosphere above the mesosphere.
It extends from 80 km to 720 km above the earth. So, it’s thickness unmissable about 640 km.
In this layer, temperature increases with the increment of altitude.
The temperature of this layer varies from -110 degree centigrade to 1200 degree centigrade.
The air in this layer is very thin.
Its upper surface has hydrogen and helium and the lower surface has nitrogen and oxygen.
Solar radiation completely exposes this layer.
When radiation from the sun in the outer space strikes the air in the thermosphere, it ionised some of the atom and molecules of the air.
These charged atoms and molecules are called ions.
Most of the ions are produces in the lower parts of the thermosphere and the upper part of the mesosphere, which is, therefore, called the ionosphere.
It is very important for communication because radio waves can travel to different parts of the world by bouncing off it.
Exosphere is the layer of the atmosphere above the thermosphere.
It is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, therefore it’s another name is a fringe region.
It extends from 720 km above the earth’s surface.
In this layer of the atmosphere, gravity is so weak and there are so few atoms that some atoms escape into space.
The temperature in this layer varies from 1200 degree centigrade to 6000-degree centigrade.
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