There are many kinds of plants growing in the world. They differ in their size, shape, structure, habit, habitat, mode of life, and many more. They may be unicellular or multicellular, microscopic, small or large in size. For example Liverwort, mushroom, mango, apple, leech, fern, pine, and so on.
Out of them, some plants bear flower and some do not.
In modern classification, plants are mostly classified into two kingdoms.
They are kingdom fungi and the kingdom Plantae.
In the kingdom fungi, nongreen plants are grouped which are non-flowering plants and the kingdom Plantae contains green plants only which may be flowering and non-flowering.
Flowering plants are sub-divided in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms only.
All the rest groups of classification of plants have non-flowering plants.
A. Kingdom: Fungi
1. They store their food in the form of glycogen.
2. Their cell wall is made up of fungus cellulose.
3. Mostly, they are multicellular except yeast.
4. Most of the fungi feed on dead and decaying matter i.e. they are saprophyte.
5. Fungi are non-green due to the absence of chlorophyll in their leaves.
6. They cannot prepare their own food.
Examples: mucor, yeast, mushroom, etc.
B. Kingdom: Plantae
The members of this Kingdom may be flowering (phanerogams) or non-flowering (cryptogams). All the members of this Kingdom are green and can prepare their food themselves.
(autotrophic).This Kingdom is further divided into three divisions as follows:
3. Division: Tracheophyta
- They grow in water and damp soil.
2. They store their food in the form of starch.
3. Their cell wall is made up of cellulose.
4. Algae are unicellular (e.g. Chlamydomonas) or multicellular (e.g. spirogyra).
5. They have chlorophyll.
6. They prepare their own food during photosynthesis so they are called autographs.
Examples: Chlamydomonas, spirogyra, volvox, etc.
1. They are terrestrial plants and grow in moist and shady places.
2. The plant body is leaf-like thallus except for moss. The plant body of a moss plant is differentiated into rhizoids, stems, and leaves.
3. They need water for their reproduction, so there are amphibians plants.
4. They are multicellular green plants and can prepare their own food.
Examples: riccia, liverwort, moss, etc.
3. Division: Tracheophyta
the members of this division have a vascular system in their bodies. Avascular system is a group of conducting tissues called xylem and phloem. Xylem conducts water and mineral to the leaves from the soil and phloem conducts food from the leaves to different parts of the plants. The division is further subdivided into three sub-divisions as follows:
a. Subdivision: Pteridophyta
1. The main plant body is differentiated into root, stem, and leaves.
2. They have feather-like leaves.
3. They are presents, In cold and shady places.
4. They are well-developed multicellular plants among non-flowering plants.
5. They can prepare their own food themselves in the presence of sunlight. So they are called autotrophs.
Examples: fern, horsetail, etc.
Some kinds of fern are uses as vegetables. A few of them is growing as indoor decorative plants.
b. Sub-divisions: Gymnosperms
1. All the gymnospermic plants are woody and live for many years.
2. The plant body is differentiated into well-developed roots, stem, and leaves.
3. They produce cones instead of flowers.
4. They have needle-shaped green leaves.
5. Fruits are not produced so their seed is naked.
Examples: cycas, pine, fir, dhupi, etc.
c. Sub-division: Angiosperms
Angiosperms are the most advanced group of flowering plants. Economically, they include the most important plants as they are the source of our basic needs like food, shelter, and clothing.
They are primarily land plants.
1. They may be herbs, shrubs or trees.
2. They can prepare their own food.
3. They live for one year or many years.
4. The seeds are encloses inside the fruits.
Sub-division angiosperms are divided into two classes. They are monocotyledons and dicotyledons.
i. Class: Monocotyledons
Monocotyledon plants include those plants which have only one cotyledon or seed leaf in their seeds.
1. They have a fibrous root system.
2. Leaves are usually long and narrow with parallel venation.
3. They contain only one cotyledon in their seeds.
Examples: maize, wheat, paddy, barley, bamboo, etc.
ii. Class: Dicotyledons
Dicotyledonous plants include those plants which have two seed-leaves or two cotyledons in their seeds.
1. They have a tap root system.
2. Their leaves are usually broad with reticulate venation.
3. They bear two cotyledons in their seeds.
Examples: pea, mustard, gram, orange, mango, neem, etc.
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