Hello! peeps as we know that, The earth’s surface is always changing. The rock on the earth’s surface is breaking and go to another place. The erosion takes place by,
The process of breaking down rocks is called weathering and the process of transportation of weathered particles and soil particles is called erosion.
Weathering happens by the sun, air and water and erosion happens by ice, water, and wind.
Weathering occurs by different physical and chemical processes.
ed in the formation of soil.
In the formation of soil, some of the physical or mechanical processes are already there.
Now, some of the physical processes are as follows.
1. When the water seeped in the cracks of rocks freezes.
2. By the change in temperature on rocks at day and night.
3. By the roots of the plant which pass in hard rocks.
4. By burrowing animals which expose the rocks for erosion.
Weathering of soil takes place by different chemical processes as well.
Some main methods are as follows.
1. CO2, when combined with atmospheric air forms carbonic acid, it dissolves many minerals of the rocks and weakens them. The process is carbonation. It also forms caves in hills.
2. Some minerals of rocks absorb water which swells them. It leads to cracking of the rocks. It is hydration.
3. Atmospheric oxygen combines with some minerals of rock which weakens the rock. The process is oxidation.
4. Plants like lichens (mixed algae and fungi) produce acid which weakens rocks for the use of minerals found on them. It also leads to weathering.
After the weathering of rocks, the weak particles are transported by wind, water, and ice. The process is called erosion.
Ocean water also causes erosion on a large scale.
Exaltation / Transportation
When the erosion occurs, soil and different particles blow randomly. The process of transferring these particles and soil from one place to another place is transportation.
After erosion, the eroded particles are collected at another place, which is called deposition.
Erosion and deposition occur one by one.
Geological activities like landslides earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are also responsible for erosion and deposition.
Erosion and deposition change the criteria of the landscape as well.
Steps for soil conservation to avoid erosion and depletion
We know that soil is a very prominent natural resource.
By controlling soil erosion, we can maintain its fertility.
There are many measures to slow down the rate of soil erosion.
Some of them are as follows with a short description.
1. Contour ploughing should take place on hills. It means the fields on slopes plough sideways rather than up and down. The rows of sideways crops slow down soil erosion.
2. Terrace farming should take place on hills. It means steplike ridges that are terraces are on slopes (ladder/stairs type). It slows down the speed of water on the steep surface and soil erosion happens less.
3. Strip cropping should be done at mild slopes. In it, different crops are grown on the same piece of land. Row crops and cover crops are grown in different strips of land and every year the location of row crops and cover crops are exchanged.
4. Afforestation should take place on barren land on anyway. It helps to replace the soil on the land.
5. The construction of river embankments also minimizes soil erosion.
6. Trees and plants can be sometimes close together in rows to form a shelter belt for farms. It minimizes soil erosion by wind and flood.