The climate of any region depends on different factors. The major factors affecting climate are as follows.
A. Distance from the equator
The earth is divided into two hemispheres by a circular line at the central region called equator.
The region of the earth’s surface 30°N and 30°S is doldrums.
That receives straight sun rays and it is the hottest region.
As the distance increases from the doldrums, the region receives slanted of the sun that is fainter than that at the equatorial region.
Thus the region is colder than the doldrums.
The polar regions never get the straight sun rays so such regions are always covered with snow and experience extreme cold climate.
B. How does latitude affect climate
As the height increases from sea level, temperature decreases. It is due to low atmospheric pressure and less greenhouse effect in the region.
Usually, temperature decreases @ of 1°C at the height of 160 km to 165 km from sea level.
The sun heats the water of the seas and oceans.
The moist air formed above the seas is monsoon.
When it comes to a cold region, it rains.
C. Distance from the ocean and sea
We know that water has more specific heat capacity(cools and heats very slowly). The land has specific heat capacity thus it cools and heats faster.
During the day water and land both temperature increases by the sun’s heat even though water is cold than land.
But at night, the land cools faster than the water of seas.
It controls the maximum and minimum temperature of the day.
At night, the hot water supplies heat to the coastal region.
The frequent rain in the coastal region due to moisture in the air also maintains the range of Temperature at that place.
As the distance increases from the sea, the climate becomes extreme.
It means that there is very cold in winter and very hot in summer.
Therefore, these are the terms or factors affecting climate.
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