Mineral Definition its types and uses

Mineral definition by entiregrade
Mineral definition by entiregrade

Mineral is pure substances which are formed by a natural process. They are crystalline in nature and they don’t consist of organic matter, that is, minerals are inorganic matter.

Thus, minerals are defined as those inorganic natural, crystalline susbtances which have their own molecular formula.

They may be elements or compounds. Gold, copper, iron, diamond, sulphur, etc. are some examples of elements minerals.

Haematite, bauxite, etc. are some compound minerals.

Types of minerals

It is categorized into two ways,

A. Metallic minerals

B. Non-metallic minerals

A. Metallic minerals

Those minerals from which metals can be obtained are called metallic minerals.

Some such minerals contain more amount of metals and some contain less amount of metals.

Rich metallic minerals are also termed as ore minerals as metals can be extracted from them economically.

Some ore minerals of different metals are given below,

B. Non-metallic minerals

Those minerals which do not contain any metals or contain a very less fraction of metal are called non-metallic minerals.

We cannot extract metal from them. They are in two categories. They are gem minerals and non-gem minerals some of the non-metallic lustrous minerals are used as gems. Emeralds, garnet, sapphire, topaz, diamond, etc. are some examples of such minerals. These minerals are also known as gem minerals.

The non-gem minerals are used to make sculptures as well.

Characteristics of minerals

The main characteristics of minerals are as given below,

1. Minerals have different levs hardness. Their hardness is measured by Mohs scale. The scale ranges from 1 to 10 (talc, gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, orthoclase, quartz, topaz, corundum and diamond).

2. They are of different colours e.g. – haematite is red or brown and chalcopyrite is golden-green in colour.

3. They have their own lusture. Usually, all the metallic minerals and the gem minerals (non-metallic minerals) have metallic lustre.

4. They are inorganic i.e. they do not contain any organic matter.

5. They are pure substances thus they have their own molecular formula.

6. They are natural i.e. they are not manmade.

7. They are crystalline.

8. They may be transparent or opaque.

Uses of minerals

Minerals are used for many purposes. Some of them are mentioned below,

1. Some precious metals are used as gems in ornaments e.g.- gem minerals.

2. They are used as the source of metals. e.g. ore minerals.

3. Some minerals are used to make different items for decoration. Some non-metallic transparent and translucent minerals are used for this purpose.

4. Some minerals are used as raw materials for different industries, for example, talc is used to make talcum powder.

5. Different types of rocks like limestone, marble, graphite, etc. Contain minerals. The rocks are used in construction as well in lime and cement industries.

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