Monomers for Nucleic Acid (detailed)

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Dna Rna Difference Source- Wikimedia
Dna Rna Difference Source- Wikimedia

Monomers for Nucleic Acid

The Monomers for nucleic acid is non-protein, nitrogenous substances which are the polymers of nucleotides.

Nucleotides = Nitrogen base + pentose sugar + phosphoric acid (phosphate).

In other words, a Pentose sugar, nitrogenous bases and phosphoric acids are the monomers for nucleic acid.

F. Meisher first discovers the nucleic acid from the nucleus of pus in 1869.

As we know that there are two types of nucleic acids. They are DNA and RNA.

These three components manufacture DNA and RNA.

Now, let’s have a look at these three monomers of nucleic acids. They are as follows:

1. Pentose sugar (5 carbon atoms):

Two types of pentose sugar are present in nucleic acids. They are:

i. Ribose sugar:

Ribose by entiregrade
Ribose by entiregrade

It is present in ribonucleic acid (RNA).

ii. Deoxyribonucleic sugar

 Deoxyribose by entiregrade
Deoxyribose by entiregrade

It is present in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

One oxygen molecule is lacking at carbon number of 2 of ribose sugar to form deoxyribose sugar.

Monomers for Nucleic Acid

2. Nitrogenous bases:

There are two types of nitrogenous bases present in a nucleic acid.

They are purine base and Pyrimidine base.

i. Purine base:

Purine contains two carbon-nitrogen rings in their structure.

 Purine two rings
Purine two rings

It is commonly present in nucleic acids are adenine and guanine.

Adenine by entiregrade
Adenine

Adenine and guanine both are present in DNA and RNA.

Guanine by entiregrade
Guanine

ii. Pyrimidine base:

Pyrimidine base has only one carbon-nitrogen ring.

Pyramidine one ring by entiregrade
Pyramidine one ring

It is commonly present in nucleic acids are Cytosine.
Cytosine is present in both DNA and RNA.

Cytosin by entiregrade
Cytosine

Thymine- It is present only in DNA.

Thymine by entiregrade
Thymine

Uracil- It is present only in RNA.

Uracil by entiregrade

Complementary bases:

In nucleic acid, specifically, a purine base has its pair to pyrimidine base by hydrogen bond such as adenine pairs with thymine and by two hydrogens, guanine pairs with cytosine with three hydrogen bonds.

3. Phosphoric acid:

It contains a phosphate group by entiregrade
It contains a phosphate group

Phosphate group combines two nucleotides with the help of a phosphodiester bond.

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