Your heart is a hollow muscular organ which consists of cardiac muscles. It’s size is about your clenched fist and weighs about 200 to 425 grams.
It is located in the middle of the chest cavity, just above the diaphragm and between the two lungs.
A double-layered membranous sac called the pericardium surrounds your heart.
In between these two layers, a narrow cavity called the pericardial cavity is present.
It is filled with a watery fluid called pericardial fluid.
This fluid performs two main functions. They are:
i. It allows frictionless movement of the heart.
ii. It protects the heart from mechanical injury and shocks.
Chambers of the heart:
The internal structure of your heart shows a muscular layer called septum, which divides the heart into two parts longitudinally. They are right part and left part. These two parts are further divided into two parts each. In this way, your heart has 4 chambers.
The upper chambers are the atrium and the lower chambers are the ventricles.
The right atrium has venacava and the right ventricle has pulmonary artery and pulmonary valve. The left atrium has pulmonary veins and the left ventricle has aorta and aortic valve.
Functions of the four chambers of the heart:
1. Right atrium: It receives deoxygenated blood from different parts of your body and pumps it into the right ventricle.
2. Right ventricle: It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium it into the lungs for its purification.
3. Left atrium: It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle.
4. Left ventricle: It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into different parts of the body.
Blood vessels of the heart:
Blood vessels are hollow and tubular vessels through which blood flows. They circulate the blood from your heart to your body tissues and from the tissues to the heart
Functions of four blood vessels of your heart:
1. Venacavas: They transport deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body into the right atrium of your heart.
2. Pulmonary arteries: They carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of your heart to the lungs for its purification.
3. Pulmonary veins: They carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of your heart.
4. Aorta: It carries pure blood from the left ventricles of your heart to different parts of your body.
Heart valves lets the blood to flow in one direction. Your heart has two types of valves. They are cuspid/autrioventricular valve and semilunar valve.
The right autrioventricular valve is the tricuspid valve and the left autrioventricular valve is the bicuspid or mitral valve.
The valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk is the pulmonary semilunar valve and the valve between the left ventricle and the aorta is the aortic valve.
Functions of the four valves of the heart
1. Tricuspid valve: It blocks the backflow of blood from the right ventricles to the right atrium when ventricles are contracted.
2.Bicuspid/mitral valve: It blocks the backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium when ventricles are contracted.
3. Pulmonary/pulmonic valve: It blocks the backflow of blood from pulmonary arteries to the right ventricle when ventricles are relaxed.
4. Aortic valve: It blocks the backflow of blood from aorta to the left ventricle when the ventricles are relaxed.
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