The pollution that occurs into the water because of the sources like sewage water, chemical fertilizers, radioactive substances, domestic wastes and agricultural wastes, etc are called sources of water pollution.
Water in its purest form is colourless and odourless. But due to various human activities as well as natural activities, many pollutants enter the sources of water and it causes water pollution.
Water pollution is an undesirable change in the physical and biotic element of water. It degrades the quality of water which may cause serious health hazards.
Although water pollution caused by both humans and natural activities, most humans are responsible for this problem. Natural causes may be the mixing of dust in the sources of water production of bacteria and other harmful germs in the water. Thus, the sources of water pollution are as follows
a. Sewage water
The liquid wastes that discharge from industries, factories and ad well as from domestic sources are called sewage. This sewage without any treatment directly discharges into sources of water likes rivers, lakes, ponds, oceans, etc causes water pollution.
As a result of these activities, there is a spread of water-borne diseases as well as the depletion of aquatic life. It also causes many water-borne diseases like diarrhoea, cholera and dysentery, etc.
Thus, sewage water is the sources of water pollution.
b. Contaminated water from industries
Along with the production of various useful products from factories and industries, they also produce various chemicals, papers and radioactive substances which directly discharges into the sources of water without any treatment. Thus, the water will neither be capable of holding aquatic life nor it will be fit for any human consumption.
In this way, it becomes the sources of water pollution.
c. Agricultural wastes
Farmers use various poisonous chemicals like DDT, BHC, Aldrin, Dieldrin, etc, to kill pests and insects and increase the crop yield. But, sometimes farmers use these fertilizers in excessive amount because of lack of knowledge about their use and it is the main source of water pollution
During the rainy season or due to human causes such harmful chemicals mix with the sources of water and kill the aquatic lives in the water. It may also cause harm to human as well.
In this way, agricultural wastes are sources of water pollution.
d. Obstruction inflow of water
If there is any sort of obstruction in the flow of water, it may cause all the pollutants mix into the sources of water. This may cause pollution in the sources of water and leads to the end of the aquatic lives.
e. Oily pollution
Oil is an important fuel. But it is one of the major causes of water pollution. Through various means such as leakage in oil tanks, spilling and washing vehicles, etc, oil reaches the water surface and it decreases the oxygenation in water which kills aquatic life.
f. Radioactive substances
Radioactive substances that release from mines through various means mix with the sources of water. Because of this, it may be dangerous for the plants and animals including human.
Thus, radioactive substances are also sources of water pollution.
Measures to Control Water Pollution
The following measures to control water pollution or the sources of water pollution are as follows
- We should recycle wastes ejected from homes and industries by implementing recycling facilities.
- We should dispose of the dead bodies of living beings including humans properly by burning and burying.
- We should keep our surrounding environment neat and clean by planting trees and also we should keep our sources of water clean.
- We should encourage the use of compost manure during cultivation rather than using pesticides, insecticides and other harmful fertilizers.
- The government should build a proper drainage system for efficient collection and treatment of wastes.
- The government should implement various legal measures for the protection of rivers and the use of safe water.
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