Stages of Development of a Plant

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Flowering plants show different states in their life – cycle. Seed, seedling, plant, flower, fruit are different states of plant life.

Seed: Most of the flowering plants contain seeds plants reproduce from seeds. A seed is a small part of plant which grows into a new plant. Seeds are formed inside the fruit. Fruit of some plants like mango, peach, lychee, plum, etc. Bear a single seed but fruits of some plants like papaya, pear, orange, tomato, apple, chilli, etc. Contain many seeds.
Example :
Seeds of peach
Seed of lychee
Seeds of papaya
Seeds of pear

Seeds of different plants have different shape, size, and look. Seeds are covered with hardcover called seed coat. The seed coat protects the seed.
Example :
Seeds of pea
Seed of mustard
Seeds of bean
Seeds of paddy

When a seed gets adequate air, water, and temperature it grows into a new plant. This process is called germination. Germination is a process of formation of seedling from a seed. During the germination, root grows towards the soil and the shoot grows upward. This stage is called seedling.

Seedling

A baby plant produced after the germination of a seed is called a seedling. In early stage, a seedling gets nutrients from the food present in the cotyledon of the seed. Later it absorbs water and minerals from the soil with the help of roots. Seedling grows gradually to give plant.
Example :
Seedlings of pea
Seedlings of mango
Seedlings of rice
Seedlings of gram

Plant

As a seedling grows bigger, its shoot gives branches and sub-branches. Then plant prepares its food in the presence of sunlight, water, and air. This process is called photosynthesis. With maturity, the plant gives buds and buds develop into flowers.
Example :
Plant of marigold
Plant of pea
Plant of papaya
Plant of orange

Flower

Buds present in a mature plant change into flowers. The attractive and colourful reproductive part of the plant is called flower. Flower has vital role in reproduction of the plant. A flower has four parts. They are calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium. The outermost whorl of the flower is called calyx. It is generally green in colour. The attractive part of flower is called corolla. It is the second whorl of a complete flower. It attracts insects and helps in pollination.
Example :
Calyx
corolla
Androecium
Gynoecium

Androecium is male reproductive part that contains stamens. A mature stamen produces pollen-grain. Gynoecium is the female reproductive part. It contains carpels or pistils. Carpel produces female gamete.

When a stamen gets matured, the anther bursts and pollen-grains are released. These pollen – grains transfer from anther to the stigma of the carpel. The process of transfer of pollen-grains from anther to stigma is called pollination. After Pollination, the male gamete and female gamete fuse to give a zygote. The process of fusion of male gamete (male cell) and female gamete (female cell) to form a zygote is called fertilization. After fertilization, the zygote develops into embryo and the embryo finally develops into fruit.

Male cell
Fusion – zygote –
Embryo – Fruit

Female cell

Fruit
Fruit is the mature form of the ovary. Fruit consists of seeds. As fruits ripe, they get dispersed under favourable condition. Dispersed seeds germinate into new plants as described earlier.

Zygote – embryo – fruit – seed

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