Types of Natural Disasters | Explanation & Examples

Types of natural disasters by entiregrade
Types of natural disasters by entiregrade

Natural disasters are the sudden accidental event of great magnitude that causes lots of destruction of property and lives. There are many types of natural disasters. They are as follows.

1. Flood

2. Landslide

3. Soil erosion

4. Earthquake

5. Fire

6. T-sunami

7. Drought

8. Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones

9. Avalanches

Now, I am going to tell you about these types of natural disasters one after another.

Types of Natural Disasters

1. Flood

A Car flooded by water entiregrade
A Car flooded by water

Flood is the overflow of water in the rivers and lakes that mainly occurs due to heavy rain. It causes destruction of lives and properties when it enters into the human settlement.

In the rainy season of 2019 AD, there was a huge flood in India that causes many people to lost their life and shelter, and many animals were washed away. That was the deadliest natural disaster for India.

In the starting year of 2020 AD, there was heavy rain in Dubai (UAE) that causes flood, roads were covered with full of water, schools were closed, and people were unable to reach their destination.

Causes of Flood

The main causes of floods are as follows.

1. Monsoon rain is the main cause of floods.

2. Landslides also cause a flood.

3. T-sunami also causes a flood.

4. The outburst of glacial lakes causes a flood.

5. Construction and destruction of dams may cause a flood.

6. Hurricanes cause a flood in the coastal regions.

2. Landslide

Landslide occurence by entiregrade
Landslide occurrence

Landslide is the downward movement of a solid mass like soil or rock under the effect of gravity. It causes massive destruction of property and life of people. It also destroys many infrastructures like water supply, transportation and disturbs the normal life of people.

Causes of Landslide

The main causes of landslide are as follows.

1. Continuous rain

2. Deforestation

3. Cutting of hills for the construction of roads and canals.

4. Overgrazing of the fields.

5. An earthquake may also cause a landslide.

6. Mining to take out different minerals from the earth’s crust leads to a landslide.

3. Soil erosion

Deposition of soil by entiregrade
Deposition of soil

Soil erosion is the process of removing soil particles from any place.

The wind takes away soil particles and sand particles with it. These particles are blown by rainwater, streams, rivers, waterfalls, ocean, waves, etc. when they hit on rocks. The breaking down of rock particles make sand which latter form soil. These particles are transported from one place to another by wind and water.

Causes of Soil erosion

The main causes of soil erosion are as follows.

1. Weathering is the main cause of soil erosion.

2. Intensive grazing may cause soil erosion.

3. The flood can cause soil erosion.

4. Deforestation may cause soil erosion.

Types of Natural Disasters

4. Earthquake

House collapse by entiregrade
House collapse

Earthquake is the shaking of the earth’s surface. When the earth releases pent-up energy and causes the surface to shake, then an earthquake occurs.

As you know that, Earth’s surface/crust is made up of many large pieces of land called tectonic plates when these plates rub against each other in some way, Earthquake occurs.

Richter scale is used to measure the magnitude of the earthquake.

An earthquake may be of higher or lower magnitude, if the magnitude is higher then, it can destroy many buildings, roads, and other infrastructures and also can kill many people.

The earthquake of Nepal that occurred on 25 April 2015 AD, with a magnitude of 8.1 nearly killed 9000 people and 22000 people were injured. This was the deadliest one ever for Nepal.

The Italian earthquake of 2016 AD, where over 200 people were killed and many buildings were destroyed.

The deadliest of all earthquake occurred in China in 1556 AD, where about 830,000 people were killed.

5. Fire

Wildlife tolerate forest fire by entiregrade
Wildlife tolerate forest fire

Fire may have human causes or natural causes. It may occur in the forest by natural causes and it also occurs in human settlements.

Fire in the jungle (forest fire), may occur naturally and sometimes by human activities. It destroys a lot of natural vegetation as well as wildlife. In settlement areas, forest destroys life and property.

The recent forest fire occurred in Australia that burned 46 million hectares (186,000 square kilometers) of land, killed approximately 1 billion animals and 35 people and also destroyed 5,900 buildings.

 This was the deadliest natural disaster ever for Australia. People from every corner of the world were praying for Australia.

For more information click on Australia Fire

Causes of Fire

The main causes of fire are as follows.

1. Lightning is a natural cause of forest fire.

2. Sometimes, due to carelessness in the kitchen causes fire in houses.

3. A short circuit of electricity causes a fire.

4. The use of explosives materials causes fire sometimes.

5. When people throw cigarette butts or leave fire after cooking food in the forest, it causes a forest fire.

6. Tsunami

Sea wave overflow by entiregrade
Sea wave overflow

A series of large tidal waves often caused by an earthquake or undersea volcanic eruption is called a tsunami. The huge tidal waves that come in the ocean displace a large volume of water in the ocean.

As they travel towards the coastal regions, the waves build up to dramatically great-height and destroy everything that comes in its way.

As the depth of the ocean decrease, the height of the tidal wave increases when it travels to shore.

A tsunami mostly occurs in the Pacific Ocean and Indonesia.

7. Drought

Drought of land by entiregrade
Drought of land

As you know, drought means to dry up rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, etc. It is a very dangerous natural disaster because it causes a scarcity of water that leads to less crop production because of less irrigation. It also causes a lack of water for drinking, bathing of animals too.

In simple, Drought is the scarcity of water that mainly occurs due to lack of rainfall.

Drought mostly occurs in India, many farmers lose their battle of farming and many animals die because of the lack of drinking water.

Cause of drought

The main cause of drought is the lack of rainfall.

8. Hurricanes, Typhoons, & Cyclone

Hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones are all tropical storms and they all are the same thing but given different names depending on where they appear.

Hurricanes are the tropical storms that appear over the North Atlantic Ocean and Northeast Pacific.

Cyclones are the tropical storms forms over the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean.

Typhoons are the tropical storms forms over the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

9. Avalanches

An avalanche is also known as snowslide. It is an event that occurs when a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weak layer of snow fractures and slides down a steep slope usually mountainside.

After initiation, avalanches accelerate rapidly and grow in mass and volume as they carry more snow.

During winter or spring, Avalanches are the most common but glacier movement can cause ice and snow avalanches at any time.

In the mountainous region, Avalanches are the most serious natural disaster because it kills people and causes loss of property.


All the types of natural disasters are always destructive for us because they kill many people and animals, so we should try to protect ourselves from this. For protection, we should do the following things. They are as follows.

1. We should control rapid population growth.

2. We should plant trees.

3. We must not cut down trees without any work.

4. Everyone should use natural resources in a proper way.

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