What is an Element | Elementology

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What is an elements by entiregrade
What is an elements by entiregrade

Element

An element is a substance whose atoms are the same and have the same number of protons.

Periodic table elements by entiregrade
Periodic table elements by entiregrade

Explanation

There are many types of substances present in our surroundings they have different physical states and chemical properties some of them are pure and some are impure or mixture.

It can be defined on the basis of their properties and definitions.

Those substances which can’t be changed into two or more simpler substances by the chemical change are called elements.

Each element is the separate kind of matter that contains only one type of atom. Some examples of elements are nitrogen, hydrogen, copper, oxygen, mercury, etc.

As we know that we use different types of element in our daily life.

Here are some elements with their introduction, uses, and properties mentioned below,

1. Aluminium (Al)

Aluminium element by entiregrade
Aluminium element by entiregrade

A. Introduction

Symbol and molecular formula, Al

Atomic number(Z) = 13

Atomic mass (A) = 27 AMU(atomic mass unit)

Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 3

Valence electron = 3

Valency = 3

Group no. in periodic table = IIIA(13)

Period no. in periodic table = 3rd

Ores- Bauxite, feldspar, cryolite

B. Properties of aluminum

Some major properties of aluminum are,

1. It is white in color.

2. It is a light metal.

3. It doesn’t rust.

4. It melts at a low temperature relative to other metals.

5. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.

6. It does not rust easily by air and water.

7. It is malleable and ductile.

8. It is a representative metal.

C. Uses of aluminum

Uses of Aluminium are as follows,

1. we use it to make utensils, windows and door frames, etc.

2. we use it to manufacture aircraft because it is light in weight.

2. Iron(Fe)

Iron element by entiregrade
Iron element by entiregrade

A. Introduction

Symbol and molecular formula = Fe

Atomic number(Z) = 26

Atomic mass (A) = 56 amu(atomic mass unit)

Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 14, 2

Valence electron = 14 and 2

Valency = 2 and 3

Group no. in periodic table = VIIA(8)

Period no. in periodic table = 4th

Ores- haematite, iron, and carbonate.

It is also called a transition element. Its last two orbits are incomplete that is why it has variable valency.

B. Properties of iron

The properties of iron are as follows,

1. It is a grey metal and it is silvery-white when freshly cut.

2. It is a magnetic body that is why a magnet attracts it but it becomes non-magnetic above the temperature of 770° C.

3. It reacts with oxygen in humid air to form rust.

4. It rusts by air & water.

5. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.

6. It is malleable and ductile.

7. It reacts with acids.

C. Uses of iron

Uses of iron are as follows,

1. It is widely used in the construction of buildings, bridges, rail, etc.

2. It is used to make different types of agricultural and other tools.

3. It is used to make vehicles and their parts.

4. It is used to make stainless steel (an alloy).

5. It is used to make nails, screws, nut bolts, etc.

6. It is used to make some utensils.

7. It is used to make weapons.

8. It is used to make sheets and wires for different proposes.

3. Copper(Cu)

Copper element by entiregrade
Copper element by entiregrade

A. Introduction

Symbol and the molecular formula (Cu)

Atomic number (Z) = 29

Atomic mass (A) = 64 amu(atomic mass unit)

Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 18, 1

Valence electron = 1

Valency = 1 and 2

Group no. in periodic table = IB(11)

Period no. in periodic table = 4th

Ores- chalcopyrite, chalcocite.

It is also used to make a coin that is why it is called coinage metal.

B. Properties of copper

Major properties of copper are

1. It is reddish-brown in color.

2. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.

3. It forms a green substance with moist air.

4. It doesn’t rust but becomes dull in air.

5. It forms black cooper oxide (cuo) when heated below 1000° C and red cuprous oxide (Cu2O) when heated above 1000° C.

6. It is malleable and ductile.

7. It reacts with acids.

C. Uses of copper

Some major uses of it are

  1. It is used to make utensils.
  2. It is used to make alloys like brass.
  3. It is used to make electrical wires and appliances.
  4. It used to make coins and jewelry.
  5. It used to make metals and sculptures.
  6. It is used to make different chemical medicines, dyes, and pesticides.

4. Silver

Silver element by entiregrade
Silver element by entiregrade

A. Introduction

Symbol and molecular formula = (Ag)

Atomic number (Z) = 47

Atomic mass (A) = 108 amu(atomic mass unit)

Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 18, 18, 1

Valence electron = 18

Valency = 1

Group no. in periodic table = IB(11)

Period no. in periodic table = 5th

Ores– Argentite, horn silver, ruby silver.

B. Properties of silver

Some common properties of silver are

  1. It is white lustrous metal
  2. It is not affected by air and water
  3. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity
  4. It is malleable and ductile
  5. It doesn’t rust
  6. It doesn’t react with dilute acids but it reacts with concentrated acids
  7. It is coinage metal
  8. C. Uses of silver

It used for the following based purposes,

  1. We use silver to make ornaments and coins
  2. We use silver to make medals and sculptures
  3. We use silver to make precious utensils
  4. We use silver to make ayurvedic and other medicines
  5. We use silver to manufacture electronics
  6. Its amalgam is used to fill dental cavities
  7. We use silver for electroplating

5. Gold (Au)

Gold element by entiregrade
Gold element by entiregrade

Introduction

Symbol and molecular formula = (Au)

Atomic number (Z) = 79

Atomic mass (A) = 197 amu(atomic mass unit)

Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1

Valence electron = 18 & 1

Valency = 1 & 3

Group no. in periodic table = IB(11)

Period no. in periodic table = 6th

Ores– Alluvial soil, Calverite, quartz vane

Gold is a precious metal that is shiny yellow in color. usually, it is found in the native state in nature. it is one of the less reactive metals.

B. Properties of gold

some major properties of gold are

  1. it is lustrous yellow-colored metal
  2. It is heavy metal as its density is more
  3. it is not affected by water
  4. It does not affect normal acids
  5. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity
  6. it is malleable and ductile
  7. it is a coinage metal

C. Uses of gold

The uses of gold are as follows,

  1. we use gold for making ornaments and coins
  2. we use gold for making medals and sculptures
  3. we use gold for making ayurvedic and other medicines(yes you read right).
  4. we use gold for electroplating
  5. we use gold for making alloys
  6. we use gold to make gold leaf electroscope which is used to identify the type of electric charge produced in a body

5. Silicon(Si)

Silicon element by entiregrade
Silicon element by entiregrade

A. Introduction

Symbol and molecular formula = (Si)

Atomic number (Z) = 14

Atomic mass (A) = 28 amu(atomic mass unit)

Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 4

Valence electron = 4

Valency = 4

Group no. in periodic table = IV(14)

Period no. in periodic table = 3rd

Ores– Sand

It is a metalloid that shows the properties of both metal and non-metal. it is a less reactive element but it is not found in a free state in nature. It is available in different forms of compounds. It is the second most common element on earth. It is prepared as a brown amorphous powder or as a grey-black crystal by heating a mixture of silica(SiO2) and carbon or magnesium.

B. Properties of silicon

some of the major properties of silicon are given below

  1. It is in the form of brown and amorphous powder or grey-black crystals.
  2. It is not affected by normal acids
  3. It is a semimetallic and semiconductor of heat and electricity. Thus, it is a metalloid.
  4. It is in the solid-state
  5. At ordinary temperature, it does not react with air but at high temperatures. It forms a layer of silica at the surface.
  6. Its powder is an insulator of electricity but its crystal is a semiconductor of electricity.
  7. C. Uses of silicon

C. Uses of silicon

Uses of silicon are as follows,

  1. we use silicon to make steel alloys
  2. we use silicon to make transistors and integrated circuit of electronics
  3. we use silicon in the manufacture of glass, enamels, blocks of cement and ceramics
  4. we use silicon to make glue
  5. we use silicon for making sculptures

7. Sulphur(S)

Sulphur element by entiregrade
Sulphur element by entiregrade

A. Introduction

Symbol and molecular formula = (S)

Atomic number (Z) = 16

Atomic mass (A) = 32 amu(atomic mass unit)

Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 6
Valence electron = 6

Valency = 2

Group no. in periodic table = VI A(16)

Period no. in periodic table = 3rd

Ores– Usually in pure form in the compound of sulphur like sulphide of metals.

B. Properties of sulphur

some basic properties are

  1. It is bright, light yellow, solid substance
  2. It is tasteless and odorless.
  3. It is insoluble in water
  4. it is a non-metal
  5. It is inflammable and also called brimstone
  6. It forms sulphur dioxide by burning in the air
  7. It does not react with acids easily.

C. Uses of sulphur

some uses of sulphur are

  1. We use sulphur to make different sulphur compounds like SO2, H2SO4, sulphides, sulphites, sulphates.
  2. We use sulphur to make medicines like skin ointments and fungicides too.
  3. We use sulphur to manufacture matches and explosives like gun powder and crackers.
  4. We use sulphur in photography in the form of hypo (sodium thiosulphate).
  5. We use sulphur to manufacture rubber and dye.

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