The varieties of plant and animal life in a particular habitat, a high level of which is usually considered to be important and desirable is called biodiversity.
It includes ecosystem, genetic and species diversities.
We have seen that different types of animals and plants are found in different regions i.e . their types vary from place to place.
In fact, the totality of number, type and variation of organisms and their ecosystems is biodiversity. It shows the total number of living beings and the variation among them in a particular region.
Types of Biodiversity Mainly, biodiversity is classified into the following three types,
a. Ecological diversity ( Ecosystem diversity )
b. Taxonomic diversity ( Species diversity )
c. Morphological diversity ( Genetic diversity )
a. Ecological diversity
This type of biodiversity is also called ecosystem diversity. An ecosystem is an ecological, which consists of different abiotic and biotic factors. Abiotic factors are non – living beings and biotic factors are living beings found in a community.
As we know that the existence of a particular organism at a particular place is closely related to the ecosystem of that place.
Aquatic animals and plants can survive and grow well in water whereas terrestrial animals and plants survive and grow on land.
In this way, there are two main ecosystems on the earth. They are water, and land ecosystem, although they are further divided into different subgroups according to their nature. It is because they are influenced by topography and climate too. The land of the Terai region shelters certain types of animals and plants whereas the Himalayan region favours other types of animals and plants different from those found in the Terai region. Unlike the animals of the Terai and mountain, the desert supports a different kind of plants and animals. So, only particular types of animals and plants are found in a particular region.
b. Taxonomic Diversity
It is also known as species diversity. Species is that group of organisms which can interbreed naturally. For example, dogs and cats are of different species.
The evidence shows that the first life was very simple like bacteria or other unicellular organisms. By the process of organic evolution. Different types of species were originated.
Evolution is a slow and progressive process by which living beings of simple type change into a complex type.
All the present animals and plants were not as we see them today when they were originated.
It is taxonomic or species diversity. Due to this diversity, cows are different from buffaloes and birds are different form of butterflies.
It causes dissimilarities among the different types of organisms of the earth.
c. Morphological diversity
It is also called genetic diversity. Genes are the factors which carry the parental characters into offspring. They are found on the chromosomes inside the nucleus of cells.
All the organisms don’t have the same types of genes and during the formation of their gametes i.e sex cells, the distribution of these factors is not similar in all the gametes.
Many organisms of the world reproduce by sexual Method in which the offspring get the characters of the father and the mother.
All the above genetic causes bring a variation in organisms.
Variation in the same species of organisms is termed as genetic or morphological variation.
Human beings are of the same species i.e. sapiens but we have genetic variation among our races like caucasoid race (Aryans), Mongoloid race and Ethiopian race (Negro).
In other animals and plants also this diversity is found on a large scale.
Give some examples of each diversity from your surroundings in the comment section.
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