All living beings, including human beings, need food for survival. Not all the food contains well-enough nutrition having nutritive elements.
For the sound health, its necessary to take food with adequate nutritive elements in a proper ratio.
Nutrition is food science, which relates to the nutrients essential for proper physical.
Nutritive elements can be got from different kinds of foods.
However, only one group of food cannot supply all such types of different elements.
Therefore, we should take a balanced diet with all the different groups of food.
On the basis of the basic components of food. It can be classified into six groups of nutrients.
- Carbohydrates – It is known as energy and heat giving food to our body. They are the compound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen Which are stored in the liver and muscles. They are found in different food and materials like rice, wheat, corn, barley, turnip, sweet potato, yam, sugarcane, sweet vegetables, etc are the major source of carbohydrates.
- Fats– Fats also provide energy and prevent the loss of heat from our bodies. They are compounds of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Ghee, oil, butter, groundnut, and soybeans are some major natural sources.
- Proteins– we require it for bodybuilding repair and maintenance of tissues in our body. Amino acids from proteins, which are the composition of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, etc. Major goods of protein are meat, fish, egg, milk, pulses like pea, bean, gram, lintel, etc.
- Minerals– Minerals which are found in soil are necessary for our body to protect us from various disease and normal functioning of our body. We supply mineral from our food materials like fruits, green vegetables, fish, meat, egg, salt, etc.
- Vitamins– vitamins are also necessary for us to protect us from different types of diseases. There are different types of vitamins, vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble and vitamin C and B Complex are water-soluble vitamins. Vitamin B complex includes B-1 and B-2 niacin, B6, B12, and folate. The main source of vitamins is liver, green vegetables, fruits, butter, cereals, egg, meat, etc.
- Water– water is very essential to maintain the body temperature and to absorb food elements. It composes about 3/4th of our body weight, lack of water causes dehydration. It is very important for us. Therefore, it must be pure.
Importances of proper nutrition
Nutrition is very important for human living beings without a balanced diet and nutrition we can not survive, importances are mentioned below-
- It provides energy to our body.
- It helps to develop our physical and mental development.
- It maintains the cells and tissues.
- It protects the body against several diseases.
- It also helps to regulate body temperature and function in various physical activities.
Concept of a balanced diet-
A balanced diet is the content of a sufficient amount of all nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, fat, minerals, and water) required for keeping our body healthy and active.
The proportion of the nutrients should be appropriate According to the daily needs.
Daily intake of a balanced diet makes the body healthy and robust.
Diet becomes a balanced diet if it contains all types of nutrients.
In conclusion, daily food must contain the appropriate proportion of food has the following three groups,
Heat and energy giving foods like rice, corn, wheat, barley, millet, buckwheat, potato, honey, sugarcane, oil, ghee, etc.
Food for bodybuilding like fish, meat, egg, milk, pulse, groundnut, etc.
Food for body protection like green leafy vegetables, sweet and sour fruits like pineapple, orange, lemon, etc
Types of nutrition
There are two types of nutrition. They are,
1. Autotrophic nutrition
2. Heterotrophic nutrition
1. Autotrophic nutrition
The process by which organisms produce energy using simple organic materials is called autotrophic nutrition and such organisms are called autotrophs.
The autotrophs are of two types. They are as follows,
a. Phototrophs (photosynthetic autotrophs)
b. Chemotrophs (chemosynthetic autotrophs)
These organisms obtain energy by oxidation of inorganic compounds. For examples, by oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate(by nitrifying bacteria) and oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to sulphur (by colourless sulphur bacteria)
2. Heterotrophic nutrition
The process in which organism directly or indirectly obtain food energy produces by autotrophs is known as heterotrophic nutrition and such organisms are known as heterotrophic organisms.
Heterotrophic nutrition is of three types. They are
a. Holozoic nutrition
It involves taking complex organic materials in the form of food and breaking them down to simple materials.
This type of nutrition is characteristic of the animals. The herbivorous animals feed on plants, carnivores feed on animals and omnivores feed on both plants and animals.
b. Parasitic nutrition
It involves obtaining nutrients from the host.
A host is a living organism which provides food and shelter to another organism
c. Saprophytic nutrition
It involves obtaining energy from dead and decaying matter. Such organisms are called saprophytes.
Explore More <